The War to End All Wars: Play-by-Email rules.

The Map:

The War to End All Wars is a World War I strategy game which covers the principle theatres of operation in detail; those being the Western front, Eastern Front, Italian Front, and the conflict in the Middle East. All of these areas are represented on the more detailed European map section. However, you will also note that there are separate map sections for North America, Africa, and Asia. These maps cover the lessor theatres such as the colonial conflict in Africa and the island seizures of the German holding in the pacific. Further, these map sections, combined with the rules, allow for possibilities and conflicts in regions that did not occur during The Great War.
Movement between maps is a simple matter. Any sea zone or land territory which connects to a sea zone or land territory on another map will have the name of the territory/territories the zone connects with. A full list of these connection points is as follows:(P=Pacific, A=Africa, E=Europe, M=Middle East, N=North America, CA=Central Asia)

North American Map Section:

Territory/Zone: Connects to:
Bristol Bay Sea of Okhost (P)
Eastern Pacific Ocean N. Pacific Ocean (P)
Middle Pacific Ocean Central Pacific Ocean (p),  Bismark Sea (P)
Gulf of Tehuantepec Coral Sea (p), Gulf of Mexico (N)
Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Tehuantepec (N)
Hudson Bay Northern Atlantic (E), Middle Atlantic (E)
Western Atlantic Middle Atlantic (E), Southern Atlantic (E)
Caribbean Sea Southern Atlantic (E), Cape Verde (A)

African Map Section:

Territoy/Zone: Connects to:
Cape Verde Caribbean Sea (N), Southern Atlantic (E)
Western Indian Ocean Central Indian Ocean (P)
Red Sea Eastern Indian Ocean (P), Eastern Mediterranean (E)
Suez Canal Palestine (M)

Asian Map Section

Territory/Zone Connects to:
Coral Sea Gulf of Tehuantepec (N)
Bismark Sea Middle Pacific Ocean (N)
Central Pacific Ocean Middle Pacific Ocean (N)
Northern Pacific Ocean Bristol Bay (N), Eastern Pacific Ocean (N)
Sea of Okhost Bristol Bay (N)
Central Indian Ocean Western Indian Ocean (A)
East Indian Ocean Persian Gulf (M), Red Sea (M)
Pakistan Ahvaz (M)
Afghanistan Terhan (M)
Turkmen Tehran (M)
Western Kazan Kazan (CA), Volgograd (CA)
Urals Mts. Perm (CA), Nizhziy (CA), Kazan (Ca)

European Map Section

Territory/Zone Connects to:
Volgograd Western Kazan (CA)
Kazan Urals Mts. (CA), Western Kazan (CA)
Nizhiy Urals Mts. (CA)
Perm Urals Mts. (CA)
Tehran Afghanistan (CA), Turkmen (CA)
Ahvaz Pakistan (CA)
Persian Gulf East Indian Ocean (P)
Eastern Mediterranean Red Sea (A), Suez Canal (A), Egypt (A), Libya (A)
Ionion Sea Algeria (A), Libya (A)
Western Mediterranean Algeria (A), Spanish Morocco (A)
Southern Atlantic Cape Verde (A), Western Atlantic (N), Caribbean Sea(N)
Middle Atlantic Hudson Bay (N), Western Atlantic (N)
Northern Atlantic Hudson Bay

Other Key Map Features:


Whatever nation controls Denmark may allow or disallow naval movement between the Baltic Sea and Shagerrak sea zone areas. If Denmark remains neutral, then no nations may send naval vessels between these two sea zones.


In the territory of Hamburg contains the Kiel Canal. This canal allows ships to travel between the Baltic Sea zone and Shagerrak sea zone. Whatever nation controls this territory at the start of any turn may make use of the canal to allow travel between the two sea zones.


Gibraltar is a massive fortified island just off the coast of lower Spain. On this map it appears as part of the Spanish (Iberian) peninsula. Travel from Gibraltar to the adjacent land territories functions as normal. However, due to the larger guns on Gibraltar, the nation which controls Gibraltar may allow or disallow any to all surface naval movement between the Western Mediterranean sea zone and Southern Atlantic sea zone. Lastly, due to the fortifications on Gibraltar any infantry in that territory defending against an attack on Gibraltar get to roll 3 dice for defense, just as if they were 3 separate infantry units (but may still only take 1 hit per unit).


Due to the mountains of Switzerland, neither Artillery or Biplanes with a fuel range of less than 5 can enter into this territory. Any infantry in Switzerland shall have a defense rating of 8. No aircraft can land within Switzerland.


Similar to Switzerland, the mountains of Afghanistan prevent artillery from entering the territory. Any infantry within Afghanistan will have a defense of 7.
Also, if Afghanistan is conquered there is a chance of rebellion. On roll of 1 in 1D10 there would be rebellion with 1D10 roll for 2 rebel infantry with minimum of zero rebels and they would act as attackers. The roll would only affect if Afghanistan is conquered and until it is free. When rebellion succedes any war state with former owners cease and Afghanistan keeps all thier units that survive. If rebellion occur then Afghanistan could no longer be influenced by any nation (but it can still be attacked).


Similar to Switzerland and Afghanistan, the mountains of Tibet prevent artilery and tanks, and all planes from entering the territory. Any infantry unit within Tibet will have defense value as common.

Suez Canal:

The Suez Canal, while being attached by land to Palestine, is a wide waterway, as well as fortified. Anyone attacking across the canal will suffer penalties as if it were Straits.


Any and all straits are represented on the map by a set of arrows that point at two land territories. A strait represents two land territories that are separated by a very narrow waterway. Ships may pass through that waterway, yet land units may still move across straits. Land units attacking across straits would be subject to the following penalties: Infantry -2, Artillery -2. No other units can attack. Straits represented on the maps are:
Northern Ireland   Glasgow
Corsica   Sardinia
Sicily   Taranto
Constantinople   Izmir
Constantinople   Sinope
Sevastopol   Krasnodar
Sumatra   Java
Tokyo   Hokkaido
Hokkaido   Sakhalin
General note concerning some straits. Any nation holding Suez Canal can disallow all naval movement between Red Sea and Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Any nation holding at least one province of Constantinople-Izmir strait, of Constantinople-Sienope strat can disallow all naval movement between Aegean Sea and Western Black Sea.


Infantry were the primary units of all WW1 armies. Infantry have meager attack values but defend well. In fact, at the start of play infantry are the only unit with a good defensive capabilities and are required to effectively use the defensive bonuses of a trench.

Manpower limits

Infantry, as are all things, a limited commodity. It takes soldiers to form an infantry unit. Each infantry unit is roughly equal to 10,000 men, or one WW1 division. Of course, each nation had a different organizational standard for their divisions se we had to go a lot further than a count of divisions to get a proper estimation of each nations, manpower limit. This manpower limit assumes that for every infantry unit lost (representing shattered and disorganized divisions), half of the fighting men are killed and the other half may join newly formed (purchased) infantry units. This means that once a nation has built as many total infantry units as its manpower limit represents, then all of its "class A" fighting men are dead, wounded or already in uniform. After that point, old men and adolescents are needed to fill the ranks of new infantry. Comparatively, these units are less effective soldiers, needing twice as many to make an equal strength infantry unit. That's twice as many supplies to equip that infantry unit.
The "bottom line" so to speak is this: Once a nation has reached its manpower limit, all infantry units purchased after that point cost twice as much as normal. Perhaps even more important, once this happens, on any given turn where the more expensive infantry units are purchased, a nation risks facing mutinies within its armies.


By WWI cavalry had become fairly impotent as improvements in weapons held by the average foot soldier made mounted troops far too vulnerable. For most nations cavalry were merged into infantry formations and were used primarily for scouting while artillery surmounted the throne as the main offensive weaponry of the war. Artillery attack well but defend poorly. Trenches can severly hinder artillery's offensive potency.


Though in 1914, Germany, Britain, and the USA had tank prototypes, historically they did not see use until 1917 by Britain on the western front. WWI tanks were more like large armored houses with mounted machine guns than the modern mechanized terrors they became in WWII. Slow as they were, WWI tanks proved capable of negating some of the defensive advantages of trenches.
If there is one tank unit in an attack force it will negate one negative point applied to infantry for attacking across a trench. If there are five accompanying tanks, then both negative points applied to infantry from a regular trench are nullified.


Trenches were fortified tunnels that armies dug all along battle lines that had solidified into bloody killing zones. A trench gave defenders some refuge from artillery shells and made for great locations to mount heavy machine guns to blunt enemy advances. Trenches also served to protect troops from those rare air attacks and disguised the army's size from reconnaissance. They also served as supply depots for ammunition and as battlefield hospitals.
Units attacking across a trench receive the following penalties to their attack value. Penalties applied can never reduce a unit's attack value to less than one.
Unit Trench Super Trench
Infantry -2 -3
Artillery -3 -4
Tanks -2 -2
Aircraft -3 Can't

Trench units are built to guard a single territory from attack from another single territory. When a player builds a trench unit they declare the territory it will protect and also declare which territory it will be facing. They then position the Trench unit on the border line between those two territories with the arrow facing the opposing side. If the opposing player later builds a trench of their own along that same border, then switch the single sided trench marker for one which faces both directions.
At least one Infantry unit must be in a territory at the start of any turn that a trench marker is to be built to protect that territory. If an army attacks across a trench and captures the territory it was invading, then the trench and all other trenches that guarded that territory are destroyed. Also, a trench can not be placed along a coastline to guard against the sea.
A Super Trench is a much more extensive trench network which nations may attempt to develope through weapons research. (see Phase 2). It provides better defensive advantages and provides complete cover against attacking aircraft. Any aircraft attacking across a super trench can not hit any of the defending land troops, and thus the aircraft can not participate in the main battle and can not be taken as loses. Aircraft can, however, attack across a super trench if there are defending aircraft in the territory, but they may only battle the aircraft there and not the land troops. Tanks attacking supertrenches wouldn’t nullify penalties for accompanyed infantry.
Note: Trenches protect only units on the first line. If trenches are build in ones in back then, although they exist they cannot be used as a shelter agains both air or rocket attack.

Anti Air Guns

Anti Aircraft weaponry was a new element in warfare during WWI and thus fairly unreliable at best. Various attempts were made to guard vital industries, bridges and other important resources against Arial reconnaissance and bombing. Extremely large helium balloons were put into the air, each with durable metal cables thick enough to destroy wooden bi planes that ran into them. For the purpose of this game, Anti Air Gun units represent any and all of the various efforts to damage aircraft.
Each AA unit gets only one die roll against enemy planes entering the given territory; not one die role per plane. Multiple AA units may be placed in one territory. The AA roll against aircraft happens before any other combat. Planes destroyed do not get to attack. AA units may not be used in an attack, nor may they accompany troops moving into an enemy territory.


The Ironclads of WWI were the king of the seas. In addition to naval combat, battleships may also shore-bombard to assist beach landing units. The shore-bombardment attack value of a battleship is different than its normal attack value. Under the attack value listing, a second number is listed which represents its shore bombardment raiting. The battleship may shore-bombard before a naval invastion starts, for one attack. The first time a battleship is hit, it is considered only damaged and must be hit another time in order to be destroyed. Damaged battleships may not attack or shore bombard, but may move and defend. A damaged battleship may be fully repaired for 20 resources if it has started the turn in a sea zone next to a port controlled by that nation or any of its allies, but the battleship cannot take any action that turn.


These are the support ships of the navy. Destroyers only have about half the fire-power of a battleship and can be destroyed with a single hit, but are also the fastest ships around. Destroyers cannot shore bombard.


These are military and merchant ships designed to carry troops across sea zones..
All transports begin play with a maximum load capacity of two troop points. An infantry unit uses one troop point to transport and all other land and air units require two troop points each. A transport cannot carry more troop points than its maximum capacity, though its maximum capacity can be increased by weapons research.
A transport that is picking up more than one unit may pick up those units from more than one territory as long as all of the territories are adjacent to the sea zone the transport is in. Likewise, the transport may unload units into different territories so long as all territories are adjacent to the sea zone the transport is in. A transport may move before picking up units, but may not move after dropping them off. If at any time a transport is sunk while carrying troops, then whatever was being transported is also sunk.

Aircraft Carriers

Historically aircraft carriers didn't first see use until the early 1920's, but aviation could have progressed to that point via technological advances. No nations start with aircraft carrier technology, but it may be developed. In addition to needing at least one breakthrough in aircraft carrier technology a nation needs to have fighters with a fuel capacity of 5 or higher (explained later) to launch form an Aircraft carrier Aircraft carriers grant a nation two great advantages in naval conflicts. First, an aircraft carrier allows extended arial operations for a limited number of fighters This can become especially handy when hunting down submarines. More important is that with fighters onboard, an aircraft carrier supplements those other naval units when attacked by land-based aircraft (See phase 9: Air Combat).
Aircraft carriers at the lowest technology level can carry 2 fighter units, and, like battleships, require 2 hits to be destroyed. Damaged carriers require 25 resources per hit to repair. A damged carrier can not launch fighters, though fighters may still land on it.


Submarines are submersible torpedo boats designed to sneak up on merchant convoys and sink important weapons and supplies. Submarines are able to avoid standard detection through its ability to dive beneath the surface of the water. During game play a submarine is able to share the same sea zone as enemy ships and then target and fight specific portions of the enemy fleets. Historically submarines were responsible for sinking thousands of tons of supplies and the German submarine fleet nearly drove the British population into starvation in 1915.
During play there are two phases dedicated to the submarine warfare element of the WWI naval conflict. The first of these Is the Submarine Detection phase where ships may attempt to locate and sink submarines sharing a sea zone with them. The second is the Submarine Interception phase where submarines may opt to attack segments of the enemy fleets based upon the actions of those ships.


The typical fighter plane in 1914 was a single propeller bi-plane. The biplane was very limited in range and couldn't carry much in the way of ammunition. With technology advances, these planes become much better, but in the early stages aircraft were used primarily for scouting and tactical strikes, not as a major offensive force.
Movement for aircraft works differently than for any other units. Movement is measured in fuel expended not distance covered. All fighters begin with fuel points. It takes 1 fuel point to enter any land territory and I fuel point for each round of combat the fighter participates in (Anti-Air shots' do not count as a round).
For example: A fighter attacks the territory adjacent to it. It used 1 fuel point to move to that territory. The fighter participates in the first round of combat, which uses another fuel point. With only one fuel point remaining the fighter must now leave the combat and Land in a friendly controlled territtory adjacent to the territory the combat round was fought in.
Movement into or out of a sea zone requires 2 fuel points This represents the fact that most sea zones are at least twice the size as any land territory. This means that fighters must have a minimum of 5 fuel points before they can enter into a sea zone for combat purposes In the same manner a fighter needs 5 fuel points before it can be used on an Aircraft carrier.
Lastly, fighters have a distinct advantage against land units not covered by antiaircraft weapons (AA) as they are not equipped with the long range heavy weaponry needed to be effective against aircraft. If an attacking force is all air (no land units) and there are no antiaircraft units on defending province, then all defending land units get -3 to their normal defensive value. This penalty is negated if the troops are in a territory with a trench in it. This makes the role of a Trench even more important in limiting the attack capabilities of an attacking force.


With the exception of Italy, in 19l4 no nation had truly developed bombers for use in the military. Bombers were basically larger bi-planes designed to travel longer distances and carry more bombs. This was accomplished by sacrificing the bi-plane's maneuverability giving all bombers a combat value of 1 in air combats.
Bombers may be used in one of several ways Bombers may attack units just as fighters can. Bombers may also do industrial bombing and tactical bombing (see Phase 4: Industrial & tactical Bombing). Bombers expend fuel for movement and combat in the same way as fighters. Bombers may not be stationed on aircraft carriers.


Industrial complexes

These represent major industrialized regions within a certain territory. All newly purchased Artillery, Tanks, Anti-Air Guns, Fighters and Bombers must be placed on the maps within territories where the producing nation has Industrial complexes. The Industrial Complex must be in a territory under the producing nation's control at the beginning of that nation's turn in order for any newly built units to be placed there during the unit placement phase. Newly built Industrial Complexes may only be placed:
1) In a territory originally held by the nation.
2) Territory under the nation's current control.
Industrial Complexes have a defense rating of 1, they can not be taken as causalties and will cease to defend once there are no longer any other defenders.

For 10 resources a nation may retool a captured factory or port, this would allow that country to then build out of this factory or port, though it would be limited per the minor colonly rules.


Ports represent a nations' access to ships. Newly constructed ships may only be placed into a sea zone adjacent to a territory containing a port held by the nation producing the ships. Ports, like industrial complexes, have a defense rating of 1 and have the option of participating in combat if the territory they are in is attacked.


Cities are marked on the map by small circles in certain land territories. Cities represent areas of high population and are the easiest locations for newly formed (Purchased) infantry units to enter the game. Infantry units may be placed in territories containing no cities, but an additional 5 resources must be spent for each infantry placed on the maps in that fashion. A nation must have control of any territory in order for an infantry unit to be placed at all. Infantry can only be placed in territories originally held by the purchasing nation at the beginning of the game.
Cities also have a defensive rating of 1 and participate in the defense of the territory they are in. Cities cannot be destroyed, nor can they be chosen as a casualty in combat. A city stops rolling defense against an invading force when there are no other friendly units remaining in that territory (excluding industrial complexes and ports), at which time the territory would fall under enemy control (assuming the invaders had surviving units).


A nation is considered conquered when all of its supply centers have been captured or destroyed. A conquered nation may no longer collect resources or build units, though its existing units may continue to fight on. A conquered nation may also choose to declare a "government in exile" and name a host nation for its armed forces. The host nation must be an ally. The host then assumes command of the "government in exile's" forces. The exiled nation's units may function as units of the host's army (i.e.,movement and combat) and will remain under the host's control until the conquered nation is liberated. Liberation occurs once the conquered nation's capital has been allied controlled for two full turns. While a government is in exile all of its remaining territories not already captured by the enemy are assumed to be territories originally held by the host nation.


At the end of any turn, any nation may offer to conditionally surrender to any number of enemy nations. The surrender does not have to be accepted, but if any nation declines, it may influence the entry of a Neutral Major Power (see Phase 15). The nation that offered the surrender remains at war with any nations that do not accept the surrender.
The terms of surrender are as follows: The surrendering nation and all nations that accept the surrender are no longer at war. If the surrendering nation has control of territories origially held by the nation(s) accepting the surrender, all of those territories revert back to their original owners control. Any units owned by the surrendering nation within those territories are moved to the nearest territory still under the surrendering nation's control.
Any territories held and incorporated by the nation(s) accepting the surrender (victorious nations) remain under those nations control. The victorious nation(s) cannot declare war on the surrendering nation on any future turn. The surrendering nation must give 1/4 of its remaining resources it collects every turn to the victorious nation(s). This giving of resources (war tribute) continues until such a time that the surrendering nation is again at war with the victorious nation(s) or two full years have passed (12 turns) since the surrender. The surrendering nation may declare war upon the victors again any time after three turns have passed since the surrender, but doing so may effect the entry of Neutral Major powers. A nation may offer to surrender only once per game. If they have surrendered, then re-enter the war, they may not offer to surrender again. They may, however, still accept surrenders offered to them.

The Alliances:

The First World War began due to an interlocking series of defensive alliance, with the hot point beginning in the Balkans in a dispute between Serbia and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Central and Allied Powers begin with the following member nations:

Central Powers:

German Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire

Allied Powers:

Russian Empire
French Empire
British Empire
Japan begins the game at war with Germany, though is not yet at war with any other Central Power nations and is not specifically allied with the Allied Powers.


All nations currently allied with each other may share territories and jointly participate in multi national attacks. Nations allied in one of the major alliances cannot change alegiance until the end of war (with the exception of Bolsheviks).


The Ottoman Empire, Italy, Japan, China, and the USA begin the war as neutral and may be influenced by certain actions and events. These are explained below:

The Ottoman Empire

While neutral the Ottoman Empire only collects 24 resources per turn. The Ottoman Empire will enter on Central Powers side on turn 3 if not influenced by British. While neutral the Ottoman player may opt to declare war on neutral minor and neutral major nations. If it enters such a war, while at war with a neutral minor nation the Ottoman Empire will collect 36 resources per turn. If at war with a neutral major nation, the Ottomans may collect their full amount of resources per turn. While Ottoman is engaged in a minor war it can not enter the primary war.
Exceptions - if at any time Arabia or Persia join the Allies before the Ottoman Empire has joined the main war, then the Ottomans may declare war on the Allies and join the Central Powers on the following turn. If Arabia or Persia join the Central Powers prior to the Ottomans joining the main war (they should not be attacked by allied forces), then the Ottomans will remain neutral, and can be influenced as any minor neutral. At that time they may also begin to influence themselves (see below) towards the Allies if the Ottoman player choses. If Bulgaria join the Central Power side prior the Ottomans enter the main war, and Ottomans are yet neutral, then the Ottoman Empire may join the Central Power side on the following turn.
If, for whatever reason, the Ottoman Empire ever declares war on the Central Powers, there is a chance that the German officers that were so abundant in the leadership of the Ottoman armies will rebel, launching the Ottoman nation into a civil war. There is a 7 in 10 chance of this happening. If it does happen, then roll 1D10 for each and every Ottoman unit, excepting those troops in Constantinople, which will remain loyal to the Ottoman nation. For all other units, there is a 4 in 10 chance that it will follow the German leadership and rebel. For those units that rebel, they will be replaced with German units of the same type without adding to total German manpower. If rebel units share the same territory as Ottoman units after these rolls have been concluded, then conduct a battle between these forces with the German units considered to be the attackers. Disregard the effects of any trenches protecting such territories for these battles. Once everything is resolved, if there are any German units remaining, then the German player will control those units henceforth and they will be treated as German units, with any territory they hold being under German occupation, though not yet incorporated.


Italy begins the war as a neutral, but set to join the Allied side on turn 7. While neutral Italy only collects 30 resources per turn. As you can read on French and Austro-hungarian rules, there are a number of things that can change this. Well, below are a few more:
1) If the Central Power capture the territory of Paris, Italy will join the Central Powers on the following turn, assuming it is still neutral.
2) Any nation may spend 10 resources for a 2 in 10 attempt to coax Italy to switch its affiliation prior to it actually entering the war. In other words, since Italy begins leaning towards the Allied side, if Germany or another Central power were to spend the 10 resources and get a successful roll, then Italy would be destined to enter on the Central Power side on turn 7 instead of the Allies. And if Italy's affiliation changes, the opposing side may then spend money to try and sway Italy back. Nations which belong to the side Italy is leaning towards may also spend the money for an attempt, for a successful attempt would block a successful attempt made by the opposing side. Italy gets to keep the 10 resources.
3) While neutral the Italian player may opt to declare war on neutral minor nations and neutral major nations. If it becomes at war with a neutral minor nation, then Italy shall collect 45 resources per turn for the duration of that war. If at war with a neutral major nation, then it will collect its full amount of resources per turn.


Japan begins the war only collecting 15 of its resources each turn. This is representative of the fact that WWI was a mere opportunity for Japan to sieze Germany's Pacific holdings. However, the Japanese player may opt to use the event of the war and the fact that most world class powers are otherwise occupied to attempt to gain even more territorial gains. Japan is neutral in this regard; that they are not allied wo the Allies or the Central Powers, but rather out for their own interest and gains. As such Japan has a variety of options available to it, and can declare both limited wars and major wars on both sides, Russia, and China.
At any time Japan may spend 25 resources to gear up its war industries and begin collecting 30 resources per turn. The turn following this action, Japan has a wide variety of options available to them. These are detailed below:
1) Japan may declare war on the Ottoman Empire. If they do this Japan will collect an additional 10 resources per turn.
2) Japan may declare war on the Austro-Hungarian Empire. If they do this Japan will collect an additional 10 resources per turn.
3) If Japan is at war with the Ottomans or Austrians, if any Central Power nation captures the Suez Canal, then Japan may begin collecting an additional 10 resources per turn.
4) Japan declare a limited war on Russia. While the war continues Japan will collect an additional 10 resources per turn. The war ends when Russia captures Korea or Japan captures any two Russian territories. Any time while Japan is in a limited war with Russia or after they have won a limited war with Russia, Japan may pay 15 resources to go to full war with Russia. If in a full war with Russia, Japan will collect its full amount per turn for the duration of the war.
5) Japan may declare war on China. If they do so this will be a full war and Japan will collect its full amount of resources for the duration of the war. If China had entered the war prior to Japan declaring war on it, then a declaration of war on China will mean a declaration of war on all nations belonging to the side China belongs to.
6) Japan may declare war on the Western Allies. This would be all Allied nations except for Russia. Japan will collect its full number of resources per turn until the end of the game.
If at any time, other than Russia capturing Korea in a limited war with Japan, Japan loses one of its original territories, then Japan will go to full war production. All of the above are merely increases on the maximum number of resources Japan is allowed to collect per turn. In no circumstance will this allow Japan to collect more resources per turn than the total resource value of all the territories under Japan's control. Also, no nations may lend money to Japan until Japan is collecting its maximum number of resources per turn; free of restrictions.
At the end of the war, if Japan has 160 or more production, the Japanese player wins a solo victory.


China begins the game neutral and only collects 12 resources while it remains neutral. At the start of play no nations may attempt to influence China.
If Japan declares war on either the Ottomans or Austrians, there is a 1 in 10 chance(for each)China will declare war on Japan.
If Japan declares war on the western allies, then there is a 3 in 10 chance China will declare war on Japan.
If Japan declares a major war on Russia, there is a 2 in 10 chance China will declare war on Japan and cooperate with Russia in the defeat of Japan.
Before declaring any war China must pay 15 resources to gear up its war time economy. Once geared up China will collect 25 resources per turn.

Because of the disorganized politics and lack of respect for the Imperial Family from many of the warlords China is limited to what it can do untill it brings all of what is considered lost China back under its control, Lost china is considered the starting lands of China plus: Inner Mongolia, Ulaanbataar, Jiaozhou, Hong Kong, Indochina, and Tibet.
1. Can not attack anything outside of Lost China.(Except for Korea, while Korea is not needed for the Lost China Claims, it was always considered theres,atleast by the Chinesse)
2. Can only launch 2 attacks per turn. Also there industrial centers produce 0 resources while at peace and only 5 at war.

Once they have reclaimed all of Lost China the Imperial Family then has the clout and authority to bring back the Full Chinesse Empire and these restrictions are removed.

China may only collect its full income by joining a side in the war or for being at war with Japan
(Note: Attacks on Hong Kong, Jiaozhou and Indochina are not treated as declarations of war against those countries,those countries will also be able to attack Chinesse lands for the next 2 turns without declareing war on China, if they are able to take a territory during this time they may exchange the captured territory for the territory they lost, if they do not wish to make this exchange then the attack will be counted as a declaration of war on China

Britian, France, and Germany all have the option of giving China a territory to open diplomatic channels with China or even more. Britian would have to surrender Hong Kong, France Indo-China, and Germany Jiaozhou. If any of these nations select this option, then the nation selecting this option may begin to diplomatically influence China per the standard diplomacy rules. For more informations see British option #3, French option #4 and German option #1.

United States of America

The US begins the war as neutral and is very much seeking an isolationist policy. While neutral the US collects only 15 resources per turn. The US player can spend 40 resources at any time to gear up its war spending and begin collecting 35 resources per turn. However, Mexico can understand that as a threat, and would raise production to half and next turn Mexico can go to full production, if consider it necessary.
The US has the opportunity to join either the Central Powers or the Allies, though it is much more likely to join the Allies. The US Public Opinion, henceforth refered as "US Entry" will be tracked by a number that starts at zero and may go up or down depending on global events. If at any time the US Entry reaches 10, then the US may join the Allies on the following turn. If the US entry reaches -10, then the US may join the Central Powers on the following turn. These events are detailed below:
1) Central Powers declare war on a neutral nation +1
2) Allies declare war on a neutral nation -1
3) Ottomans join Central Powers before turn 3: -1
4) Ottomans join Allies: +1
5) Italy Joins Central Powers: -2
6) Italy joins Allies: +2
7) Minor nation joins Central Powers: -1
8) Minor nation joins Allies: +1
These not to be confused with event #1 and #2 - they are used only for influencing minorrs
9) Trade to Russia is cut off: +1
9) British blockade US trade to Germany: 2 in 10 chance of -1
10) Germans blockade US trade to Britian or France: 2 in 10 chance of +1
11) Germans declare unrestricted submarine warfare: +1, and there is 3 of 10 chance of +1 for each consecutive turn
12) Japan declares full war on Russia: +1
13) Japan declares full war on Western Allies: +2
14) Japan declares war on both Ottomans and Austria: -1
15) While neutral US enters war with major neutral power. 3 points closer to zero.
16) Zimmerman Note is discovered: +2
17) British Propaganda is discovered: -2
18) Nation from side the US currently favors surrenders: 1 Point towards that side.(Moderator Discreation)
19) Nation from side the US currently favors is conquered: 1 Points towards that side.(Moderator Discreation)
20) Refusal to accept an offer to Surrender. 1 point against the side which refuses the surrender.(Moderator Discreation)
21) End of turn economic roll: -1/+1 see below.
At the end of every turn roll 1D10. The US will naturally favor the side which is producing the greatest number of resources. On a roll of 9 or 10 the US Entry will move 1 point towards the side with the greater resource production. On a roll of 1 the US entry will move toward the side with the lessor production. Neutral nations engaged in limited wars do not count towards this resource total. Japan automatically counts towards Allied productions unless it has opted for war with the western allies.

US Playing Options

The US begins play collecting 15 resources. Also, while neutral, the US automatically lends 10 resources to England, 8 resources to Germany, and 5 resources to France and there is opportunity for 5 to Russia, too - see Variable US trade section. These are not gifted resources, but representative of the US merchants selling wartime goods-on credit to these nations. These resources do not count against the US production, but the trade stops once the US enters the main war.

Option #1: Gear Up Production

The US player may spend 40 resources at any time to raise its resources collected per turn to 35.

Option #2: Declare War on Neutrals

The US player may attempt to enter into wars with neutral minor nations and neutral major nations, though this will not be easy. To enter into such a war the US player must seek to get a declaration of war approved by the US congress and have to raise economy. They must spend 10 resources per attempt and can only make 1 attempt per turn. If seeking war on a minor nation, then there is a 4 in 10 chance the declaration of war will be approved. When seeking war on a neutral major nation, there is only a 2 in 10 chance of it being approved. Should the declaration of war attempt fail, then the US entry status (see below) will shift one point closer to zero. If at war with a minor nation, the US will not collect any additional resources per turn. If at war with a major nation, then the US will begin to gear towards full war time production.

Option #3: Lend Resources

The US being neutral and a major supplier of wartime goods may opt to gift resources to any nation active in the main war. They must gift at least 5 resources, if they chose to gift any. Unlike other nations, ALL of the gifted resources arrive to their destination, rather than just half. These resources come out of the US player's saved resources, NOT the resources the US is not currently collecting. If the US lends resources to a nation on the side the US Pubic Opinion is currently leaning towards, there is a 1 in 10 chance that the US Public Opinion will move 1 point towards the opposing side. Hence if the US Entry is currently at 3 and the Us gifts 10 resources to Serbia, there is a 1 in 10 chance the US Entry would drop to 2. If the US gifts the resources to a nation belonging to the side which US Public Opinion is not leaning towards, there is a 2 in 10 chance the US Entry will move 1 point towards the side the Public Opinion currently favors. If US public opinion is at zero, then no effect can happen to it by the gifting of resources.

Option #4: Influence Public Opinion

The US player can try and take his destiny into his own hands and launch a media campaign to try and influence the US Public and other branches of government. This can be done once per turn and cost 10 resources per attempt. 1D10 is rolled. On a 7, 8, 9, or 10 the US Public Opinion will move 1 point in the direction the player wanted it to. On a  roll of a 1 the US Public will move 3 points in the opposite direction.

Option #5: Influence Minor Nation

This option allows the US player to try and influence minor neutral nation towards joining either the Allied or Central Powers side, just as if any active participant had tried to make a diplomatic influence attempt. It cost the US 15 resources to attempt this while neutral. There is a 2 in 10 chance of success, just like any standard diplomatic roll. There is also a 2 in 10 chance that the US Public Opinion will find out about these dealings and shift 1 point towards the side the US player had not tried to influence the nation towards.
Example: If the US player, regardless of where the US Entry is at, tries to influence Arabia towards becoming allied to the Allied Powers, there is a 2 in 10 chance that US Public Opinion will shift 1 point towards the Central Power side. This roll is independent of the roll to determine the success of the diplomatic attempt.


British Empire

Option #1: Naval Blockade of Germany

On any turn that Britain has at least one surface vessel in the sea zone Shagerrak, Britain may chose to Blockade naval trade to Germany.  This will prevent the 8 resources of US trade from reaching Germany while the US is neutral. This option must be selected on a turn by turn basis. On any turn it is chosen there is a 1 in 10 chance it will negatively effect US Public Opinion 1 point. Britain may start using this option from the first turn onward.

Option #2: Ottoman Trade Fiasco

Historically Britain had a purchase order from the Ottoman Empire to deliver two heavy cruisers to the Ottomans. They chose instead to put those ships into the British navy. While the Ottoman Empire was already decidedly a German ally, the British failure to deliver those ships prompted the Ottomans into the war sooner. The Ottomans will enter the war on Turn 3 normally. If the British player chooses to give the Ottomans 1 of its destroyers (this represents the two heavy cruisers), then the Ottoman Empire will not enter the war until turn 5. If this is done, the destroyer will instantly be moved off the map and placed under the Ottoman Empire's control in the same sea zone as the rest of their fleet. The British may exercise this option on either Turn 1 or Turn 2.

Option #3: Seek Chinese Favor

The British player may chose to give the territory of Hong Kong back to China, along with paying China 15 resources. If this is done there is a 3 in 10 chance that China will move one space closer to the Allies. However, there is a risk involved. Seeking China's favor may upset the fragile alliance Britain had with Japan and there will be a 1 in 10 chance that Japan will declare war on Britain and go to full production. This option may be done on any turn where China is not yet in the war and only once. The Chinese player gets to keep the 15 money and the territory regardless of further events, and can be diplomaticaly influenced by allies the following turn.

Option #4: Influence US Public Opinion

Historically it is argued that Winston Churchill took measures to try and sway the US public opinion against Germany. A propaganda campaign can target many news vehicles and include allowing ships to be sunk when they could otherwise be saved, and many other elements. For game purposes, this will simply be an expenditure of 15 resources. The moderator will roll 2D10. On a 18, 19, or 20 the US Public Opinion will raise 1 point. On a result of 2 the US media will discover the propaganda for what it is and the US Public Opinion will drop 2 points.

Option #5: Help to Persia or Arabia.

If the Ottomans are at war with Persia or Arabia then England may spend 15 resources to send aid to Either or Both Persia and Arabia, 10 of the resources will get to the hands of the country it was sent to and it will also count as an influence check for that country with a 30% chance of success(can not both send aid and normal influence). However there is a 20% chance that the Ottomans will find out about this and end there minor war and join the Centrals on the next turn.

Option #6 Hong Kong Port

Hong Kong has the workings for a port, the English player may pay 20 Resources to upgrade this to a full Port(Any player that controls Hong Kong can also use this option)

French Empire

Option #1: Spanish Relations

Traditionally France is not allowed to try to influence Spain. Bad blood remaining between those two nations due to the Napoleonic Wars. See the Spanish Garrison special rule. If France gives Spain 10 resources there is a 7-10 chance Spain will become normalize relations with France and the Spanish Garrison rule will be void and France may attempt to influence Spain on future turns.

Option #2: Supporting Russia

France may buy 2 infantry per turn and place them in Russian controlled cities, these infantry are considered members of the French Foriegn Legion and are controlled by the French Player.(For Manpower considerations they use up Russian Manpower)

Option #3: Influence Italy

Prior to WWI France and Italy had been on fairly unfriendly turns, with Italy viewing France as its most dangerous regional enemy. Only the promises of monetary and military support from Britain and France, and a premature partitioning of Austro-Hungarian lands prompted Italy to join the war. This game begins assuming those overtures are already being made, hence why Italy is set to join the Allies on turn 7. France may continue to the courtship of Italy a bit further. For 10 resources there is a 2 in 10 chance that Italy may be prompted to enter the war a turn early; hence on turn 6 instead of turn 7. France may attempt this once per turn, and only prior to Italy's entry into the war, and only while Italy is leaning towards the Allied side (see Italy's description below). If France is successful in advancing Italy's entry turn, they may continue to use this option to attempt to advance it even further.

Option #4: Influence China

The French player may chose to give the territory of Indochina to China and then China can be diplomaticaly influenced by allies the following turn.

Russian Empire

Option #1: Supporting Serbia

Russia was the primary diplomatic supporter of Serbia, and in fact it was the Russian military mobilization against Austria that finally sent Europe down the unavoidable path to war. For a cost of 2 resources, Russia may gift 10 resources to Serbia. This option may only be used once per turn.

Option #2: Properly Supply the Army

Russia's military preparation for war in 1914 was a sad state of affairs. As the army began to mobilize Russia quickly began coming up short on supplies to properly supply all its soldiers. For instance, only 2 out of 3 Russian soldiers in 1916 even were equip with a gun; with the expectation that those without would claim a firearm from fallen foes once in battle. This was a primary cause of the high desertion rate the Russian army faced, with many of the deserters returning to the civilian populace and becoming supporters of the revolutionary movement. If Russia chooses this option its infantry will cost 6 resources for the remainder of the war. On any turn where the moderator would typically begin rolling for the chance of the Russian revolution beginning, the roll will have a 1 in 10 less likely chance of success.

Central Powers

German Empire

Option #1: Seek Chinese Favor

The German player may opt to give the territory of Jiaozhou back to China, along with paying China 15 resources. If done, there is a 3 in 10 chance that China will move one space closer to joining the Central Powers. However, there is a risk involved. Japan will look down on Germany's attempt to bring China into the war and there is a 1 in 10 chance, even if China stays neutral, that Japan will instantly go up to full production and declare war on the rest of the Central Powers. The Chinese player gets to keep the 15 money and the territory regardless of further events, and can be diplomaticaly influenced by Central Powers the following turn.

Option #2: Naval Blockade

On any turn that Germany has a surface ship in the Middle Atlantic sea zone it may chose to blockade French ports and prevent the US trade from reaching France. If Germany also has a surface vessel in the North Sea, then it may also blockade Britain from receiving its trade resources from the US as well. This option must be chosen on a turn by turn basis. If done, there is a 1 in 10 chance that it will raise US Public Opinion 1 point.

Option #3: Sway US Public Opinion

Like Britain, Germany may attempt to run a propaganda campaign on the US public. This option will cost them 15 resources. 2D10 are rolled. On a 19 or 20 the US Public Opinion will lower by 1 point. On a 2 the US Public Opinion will raise by 2 points.

Option #4: Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

Germany may declare unrestricted submarine warfare at any time. If done, if there are any submarines in the North Sea >or< the Middle Atlantic then the US trade resources to >both< Britain and France will be cut off. Additionally, Britain will lose 1D10 resources, representing transport ships coming in from its colonies getting sunk. Once announced, Germany can not retract its unrestricted submarine policy without spending 25 resources and never being able to use unrestricted sub warfare for the rest of the war. Each turn unrestricted sub warfare is in effect there is a 3 in 10 chance that the US Public Opinion will go up 1 point.

Option #5: Support Irish Rebellion

Any turn that a Central power has a submarine or ship in the Irish Sea zone Germany may spend 10 resources to deliver arms and supplies to the anti-British Irishmen. Each turn they do this there is a 2 in 10 chance that Ireland will rebel against Britain. If a rebellion happens, Ireland's rebellion will get 1D10 infantry units and 1 artillery unit for which to immediately attack any British forces in the two Irish territories. Once assigned to territories, a combat will occur with any British forces, treating the Irish rebels as attackers and the British forces there as defenders. Each time a roll is made to support an Irish rebellion, there is also a 1 in 10 chance that the Irish people will learn of Germany's meddling and further support the British war effort (on a 1 the Irish support the Brits, on a 9 or 10 they rebel). If this happens, Britain will get +20 to its manpower limit for the British Isles. Once one or the other result happens, no further attempts may be made to support an Irish Rebellion.

Option #6: The Zimmerman Note

With certain promises and an inside contact within the Mexican government, Germany can attempt to gain Mexico as an ally through this, in addition to the standard means of diplomatic influence. An attempt will cost 15 resources. On a 9 or a 10, Mexico will become allied to Germany and join the war on the Central Powers side. On a 1-3, the US Public Opinion will raise 2 points.

Option #7: Sneak Supplies to German East Africa

Germany implemented several inventive ways to get supplies from Germany down to German East Africa. It will cost 6 resources to do this. On any turn this option is used, Germany may build an additional two units in German East Africa (at normal cost). For a cost of 8 resources (plus normal cost) Germany may build an artillery unit in German East Africa without having an Industrial Complex there.

Option #8: Support Russian Revolutionaries

Germany may spend money to and support the growing revolutionary movement inside Russia. On any turn once the moderator has begin to roll for the chance of the Russian Revolution beginning, Germany may spend 12 resources to add an additional 1 in 10 chance of the revolution starting.

Option #9: Build subs in Adriatic Sea

Germany may build a single sub in Germany and transport it to Adriatic Sea. For that purpose there can be no strategic movement from/to Trieste and 6 points will be substracted from total allowance for rail movement of any province with port where submarine is being built. This sub can engage any surface or submarine ship in that sea in the same turn.

Austro-Hungarian Empire

Option #1: Peace with Serbia

The spark that began WWI started in the Balkans with tensions between the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Serbia. This option will allow the Austro-Hungarian player to offer Serbia 25 resources for a 50/50 chance of Serbia accepting a peace treaty. This option may only be attempted once per game and only if Serbian territories contain no non-Serbian Allied units in them.

Option #2: Seek Italy's Favor

Austrian lands were the prime target of Italy's ambition, particularly the city of Trieste. Th Austro-Hungarian player may opt to gift Trieste to Italy, along with paying Italy 15 resources for a 4 in 10 chance of Italy joining the war on the Central Power side. However, there is a 1 in 10 chance this will be seen as a sign of weakness and Italy will join the Allied side. The Italian player gets to keep the 15 resources and the territory regardless of the outcome. Trieste automatically becomes incorporates into Italian lands.


Industrial Centers:

Certain territories not only provide there listed resources to the player that controls them but also is the center of strong factory and indusrial centers for the country. These area's produce an extra 5 resources per turn , these resources may only be spent on units built in a factory or a shipyard. They may be combinded to help pay for more expensive units with normal resources and/or resources from other industrial centers. These areas are the lands that start the game with industrial complexes: note buying addititonal industrial complexes does not create an extra industrial center.

Industrial centers resources may not be saved, any that is unused is lost.


Sequence of Play


Phase 1: Diplomatic Actions

During this phase a player has a number of different diplomatic actions available to them: These are detailed delow:

1.1: Declarations of War

Any nation the player intends to attack this turn, if the player is not yet at war with that nation, then they must declare war on them at this point. Make sure to determine the effects of the declaration of war on US Entry or any other neutral major nations. If the war is not declared then nation (and the block she is in) suffer double penalty for US entry.
Note: if no military actions are done in that and next turn then they have to declare peace, will lose all bonus resources retrospecitvely and won't be able to declare war for next three turns (or join main war). This is to disallow unnecessary war and to avoid declaration of war against distant countries that are out of reach.

1.2: Diplomatic Influence

Most minor nations and some major neutral nations can be influenced by the major nations already active in the main war. There are five diplomatic stands on the chart below; these are Central Power Camp, Favorable to the Central Powers, Completely Neutral, Favorable to the Allies, and the Allied Powers Camp. All neutral minor nations begin either neutral or favorable to one side or the other.
A nation may spend 10 resources for a chance at making a neutral nation more favorable to them. The chance of this happening is 2 in 10 per attempt. Only one attempt can be made on a particular nation by the player each turn. For instance, Spain begins the war completely neutral. Germany could spend 10 resources for a diplomatic influence attempt on Spain. Assuming the roll was successful, Spain would then become favorable to the Central Powers. If Germany or another Central Power nation could successfully influence Spain again, then Spain would join the Central Power side. If, however, an Allied nation successfully influenced Spain before that time, then Spain would move one position closer to friendly relations with the Allies and become neutral again.
A few minor nations begin the game favorable to a particular side. Any members of that alliance may attempt to influence such a minor. Nations with a * before them can be diplomatically influenced, but such attempts shall only succeed on a roll of 10.

1.3: Surrender

At this point a nation may offer to surrender. If all of the opposing nations agree, then the terms of surrender as listed earlier in this manual enter into effect. If the nation has any troops on territories which belonged to the opposing side, then the player must begin removing all troops from those territories by the fastest routes possible. If any nations do not accept the surrender, then the player's nation remains at war with those nations.


Phase 2: Technology

The player may try for any of the improved technology below. It cost 10 resources per attempt and only one attempt may be made for each technology per turn. On a roll of a 9 or 10 on a ten-sided die you will have successfully have researched the technology.  Some upgrades grant the units an automatic improvement. Others, however, require the nation to invest in upgrading existing units. For instance, if a nation wins the improved weapons technology, the nation will have to purchase all the improvements at once. Let us say that you had 50 infantry in play and the cost for improved weapons is +1 for every infantry. It would cost you 50 resources to upgrade all existing infantry and have the new technology take effect. Then every new infantry purchased by that nation would receive the improved status and also cost the increased amount.

Improved Weapons

This technology is designed to give infantry greater firepower. Improved weapons represent grenades, more portable machine guns, land mines and other wonderful instruments of death.
# of possible advances: 1     Applies to infantry
Stats: +1 attack, +1 defense, +1 cost

Chemical Warfare

This represents the development of chemical and biological weapons. Even though gas masks did provide some security against chemical weapons, they did not truly negate the offensive potency of this modern warfare.
# of possible advances: 2    Applies to infantry
Stats: 1st Advance: +1 attack
2nd Advance: +1 attack

Troop Mechanization

This is the technology of having a large army able to cover distances more effectively. While is won't give units more movement in game terms, it does allow soldiers to cover more territory. There for decreasing the number of men it takes to make a fully capable combat unit. At the moment that a nation develops troop mechanization, the moderator will increase the manpower limit of that nation by 30%.
# of possible advances: 1    Applies to infantry
Stats: increases manpower by 30%

Improved Artillery

This improves the distance, accuracy and rate of fire.
# of possible advances: 3     Applies to Artillery
Stats: 1st Advance: +1 Attack
2nd Advance: +1 Defense
3rd Advance: +1 Attack


Only Germany, Britain and the US start out with tanks. On the first advance all other countries get the ability to simply make tanks.
# of possible advances: 4    Applies to Tanks
Stats: 1st Advance: Developed tanks (Germany, Britain & US -2 cost and +1 attack)
2nd Advance: +1 attack, +1 move, +1 cost
3rd Advance: +1 attack, +1 cost
4th Advance: +1 attack, +2 cost & Breakthrough.
Breakthrough means the tank can go on to move into or attack a second territory after successfully capturing the first. Any combats that happening as a result of a breakthrough are determined after all other combats are resolved.

Super Trenches

Development of Super Trench technology allows a player to begin building Super Trenches. In order to build a super trench a nation must have 2 or more infantry units present in a territory where it already has a normal trench. 15 resources may then be expended to upgrade the trench to a super trench.

Improved Anti-Aircraft Guns

Improved AA guns get to fire once every round of an attack against the territory they are in. This is in addition to the one die roll they receive when aircraft first enter the territory. Improved AA guns may also be put on ships. Battleships and carriers may hold 2 improved AA guns, while cruisers and transports may carry 1.
# of possible advances: 1     Applies to AA guns
Stats: 1st Advance: +1 defense, 1 roll per round, can be added to ships.

Improved Battleships

Improvements in battleship range from increasing shelling capability, ground support capabilities and armor plating.
# of possible advances: 3   Applies to battleships
Stats: 1st Advance: +1 shore bombardment, +1 hit capacity (3 hits to sink), +5 cost
2nd Advance: +1 shore bombardment, +1 attack, +1 hit capacity (4 hits to sink), + 6 cost
3rd Advance: Second attack (2 attacks per combat round), +7 cost

Improved Cruisers

# of possible advances: 3   Applies to Cruisers
Stats: 1st Advance: +1 attack, +2 cost
2nd Advance: +1 defense, +2 cost
3rd Advance: +1 attack, +3 cost

Improved Transports

# of possible advances: 3    Applies to transports
Stats: 1st Advance: +1 troop point, +2 cost
2nd Advance: +1 troop point, +2 cost
3rd Advance: +1 defense, +3 cost

Improved Submarines

# of possible advances: 2   Applies to Submarines
Stats: 1st Advance: +1 attack, +2 cost
2nd Advance: +1 attack, +3 cost

Aircraft Carriers

No nation begins play with aircraft carriers. With 1 advance basic aircraft carriers may be built, but it is highly recommended that sea capable fighters (fuel 5) be stationed on the carrier right away or it will have difficulty defending itself. Fighter may be built DIRECTLY onto a carrier if it is in a sea zone adjacent to a territory with an industrial complex controlled by the carrier's nation.
# of Possible Advances: 3     Applies to Carriers
Stats: 1st Advance: Basic carrier technology
2nd Advance: Holds +1 fighter, +7 cost
3rd Advance: Holds +1 fighter, +1 hit capacity (3 to sink), +9 cost

Improved Fighters

Improvements in aviation range from the weight capacity, range, speed, maneuverability and ability to scramble planes quickly into the air. These increase the fighter's attack and defensive capabilities as well as total range and maximum airtime (fuel points).
# of possible advances: 4      Applies to planes
Stats: 1st Advance: +1 defense, +1 fuel, +1 cost
2nd Advance:+1 defense, +1 fuel (naval ready), +1 cost
3rd Advance: +1 defense, +1 fuel, +1 cost
4th Advance: +1 attack, +1 defense, +1 fuel, +1 cost

Improved Bombers

Only Italy starts the war with basic bomber technology, others still have to research it.
# of possible advances: 3     Applies to bombers
Stats: 1st Advance: Basic bomber technology
2nd Advance +1 attack, +2 fuel, +2 cost
3rd Advance: +1 attack, +2 fuel, +2 cost
4th Advance: +1 attack, +2 fuel, +2 cost

Faster Ships

# of possible advances: 1     Applies to all ships
1) +1 movement, +5 cost to Battleships and Aircraft Carriers. +2 cost to Cruisers, Submarines and Transports.

Improved Industrial Technology:

This research is devoted to improving factory efficiency. Two advances are possible for this field, each one reducing the cost of manufactured units (doesn't include infantry or trenches).
# of possible advances: 2     Applies to industrial complexes
Stats: 1st Advance: Reduces the cost of every unit by 10% (round up)
2nd Advance: Reduces the cost of every unit by 20% (round up and not cumulative from 1st industrial tech)


Historically radar was not developed until WW2. Because aircraft played a much less critical role in WW1 there was no great need for radar. However, if aircraft technology advances significantly, radar may become an important tool.
# of possible advances: 1    Applies to radar units
Stats: Cost 18, may be placed on battleships or carriers. Enemy planes receive -1 to their attack when radar is present. If on a ship, that ship has a 50% chance of detecting them and the ships have the option of retreating to an adjacent sea zone. A radar unit is destroyed if the ship it is on is sunk or the territory it is in is captured in combat.


Was developed shortly after radar and using similar components, is allowable as an independent technology.
# of possible advances: 1    Applies to sonar units
Stats: Cost +13, placed on any ship, all subs attacking a task force with a sonar unit in it receive -1 to their attack. (see Sub Detection and Sub Interception).

Phase 3: Build New Units:

During this phase players may spend saved resources on new units. The player selects all of the units they want to purchase, adding up their value and making sure they have not spent more than the total number of resources they had saved. All purchased units are not placed at this time (see Phase 13: Place New Units).
Units have various cost. A few units have the same cost and combat abilities for every nation. These are as follows:
Trenches: 5
Super Trench: 15
Radar Unit: 18
  Sonar: 13
Unit Type Cost Attack Defense Move
Anti-Air Guns: 3 - 1 1
Aircraft Carrier: 95 2 2 2

For these and other units cost check Units and Technology page.

Phase 4: Industrial & Tactical Bombing:

The player may now attempt industrial and tactical bombing misions against the enemy.
Industrial bombing raids can be done with any bombers which have achieved tech level #4. Industrial bombing can be targeted against an enemy Industrial Complex or an enemy City. Each bomber that successfully penetrates the AA fire and intercepting fighters (See Phase 9: Air Combat) gets to either subtract 1D4 resources from the target nation's resources to be collected that turn or 1 Manpower from their Manpower reserves. Resource bombing must target an industrial complex while Manpower bombing must target a city.
Any aircraft may attempt tactical bombing. Tactical bombing is the targeting of strategic positions prior to an attack in order to aid that attack. Such targets could include bridges, known supply routes, ammunition depots, artillery locations, relief troops or any number of other things. Any aircraft that successfully make it passed any AA fire and/or intercepting fighters automatically score 1 Tactical Strike Point. If three or more Tactical Strike Points are scored against a territory in a single turn, then any infantry attacking that territory that turn recieve a +1 to their attack ratings.
Industrial and tactical bombing missions constitute the participating aircrafts' action for the turn. The aircraft cannot move, or participate in combat on any turn it does a bombing mission.

Phase 5: Submarine Detection:

Ships sharing a sea zone with enemy submarines may attempt to locate and attack those submarines during this phase. Each ship attempting to detect enemy subs must roll equal to or lower than it's search capability (see below). Additionally, fights and bombers (assuming they have the range: fuel) may be flown into a sea zone with enemy subs and also attempt to locate and destroy those submarines.
Submarine Detection Capability
Submarines 1
Fighters 2
Battleships 3
Bombers 3
Destroyers 5

All ships and aircraft that successfully detect the submarines are then engaged in battle against all of the enemy submarines in that sea zone (see Phase 7: Naval Combat). Ships and aircraft that failed the detection attempt remain in that sea zone, but may not participate in the battle. After one round of combat has concluded, either side may chose to disengage from the battle. If the detecting force has aircraft among the attacking force, then if the submarines disengage, they must move into an adjacent sea zone. If there are no aircraft present, they may remain in the same sea zone. If the detecting ships disengage, they remain in the same sea zone. Submarine detection counts as a unit's action for the turn
The units that detect subs have a free round of combat before subs can strike back.

Phase 6: Naval Movement:

Before naval movement can begin, all ships must be assigned to a task force. A task force is merely a group of ships traveling together to execute the same mission. A submarine or group of subs may then attack the ships within a particular task force without having to confront all ships in that sea zone. Aircraft may be sent into a sea zone during naval movement and assigned to a task force as cover. If subs attack that task force, the aircraft may then participate in the battle. Aircraft being sent into a sea zone without any accompanying ships to attack an enemy fleet also move during naval movement.
British player has 2 battleships, 5 cruisers and 3 transports in sea zone B. He assigns 1 transport, 1 battleship and 1 destroyer to task force #1, which has the transport pick up 2 infantry form territory A and move into sea zone A.
1 destroyer is assigned by itself to be task force B, witch is sent to sea zone C to help out against a German sub pestering the fleet there.
1 battleship, 1 destroyer and 2 transports are assigned to task force C, which picks up 4 infantry from territory A. Task force C remains in sea zone B so the transports may attempt to land the infantry they picked up in territory B. The remaining 2 destroyers are assigned task force D and do nothing, as they used up their action earlier trying to detect subs.
One ship can only do a single task, no ships can do more then 2 tasks. Submarine detection is excluded, because it occurs prior to this phase.These tasks are:
1. transport troops (for transports)
2. escort (for warships and subs) - good for intercepting all surface vessels, but need to escort vulnerable ship
3. naval bombardment (for battleships)
4. carrier move (for aircraft carriers)
5. engage surface ships
6. naval blockade (for all warships)
7. Run Blockade(Destroyers have a 60% chance of avoiding combat if caught they get a 60% chance to move on after each round of combat)

7. dock and replenishment (default - not involved in any move or task group)

Phase 6.1: Submarine Interception:

Once a player has assigned ships into task forces, a player with subs in the same sea zone may choose to have the subs attack any number of task forces. A sub may intercept and attack any task force moving into or out of the sea zone the submarines are in or attempting to offload a transport into a territory adjacent to the sea zone the subs are in.. Task forces which are doing none of these things may not be targeted by subs for interception.
Using the example above, let us say the German player had 4 subs in sea zone B. He could send subs to intercept task forces A, B and C but not D. He decides that going after C is too risky, but task forces A and B make tempting targets. He sends 2 subs against the 1 destroyer in task force B, fairly certain of success. He sends the remaining 2 subs against task force C, not because the odds suggest total victory, but because with a decent luck will cause the British player to lose either a battleship or the loaded transport and the destroyer. Either outcome will mark a small economic victory for the Germany U-boat navy.
Combats that arise from sub interception are fought as usual with the following exceptions. If the attacking subs attempt to retreat the combat ends but the surviving subs remain in the sea zone. The intercepting subs cannot retreat if aircraft are assigned to the naval task force, but once the aircraft are forced to return to land (due to lack of fuel points), then the subs may retreat as usual.

Phase 7: Naval Combat:

There are several steps involved in naval conflicts. All naval battles, including those that occur from submarine detection and sub interception can be resolved by using these steps.
Step 1)
Any fighter stationed aboard undamaged aircraft carriers may attempt to intercept any aircraft in the attacking force and engage in air combat (see air combat)
Step 2)
Defending ships get to roll their defensive factors against any attacking aircraft that make it past the air battle (if any). Any ship that rolls equal to or less than its defense factor successfully scores a hit against the attacker. The attack removes on plane for each hit that is taken. Aircraft at this stage do NOT get to roll against the defending ships.
Step 3)
Any AA guns on the ships get to fire at the planes that are going to attack.
Step 4)
All attacking ships and aircraft roll for hits. Then defending ships and planes roll for defense. Players roll 1D10 for each ship, with a roll equal to or lower than the ship's attack/defense level meaning that ship has scored one "hit" against the oppossing force.
Step 5)
Both the attacker and defender take losses, removing one ship for each "hit" the opposing side scored that compnat round. Except for Battleships and Aircraft Carriers, both which can take two or more hits before they are removed from play.. Hits scored by AA guns can only be used to destroy planes and hits scored by submarines can only be applied to ships.
Step 6)
The attacking force or defending force may now opt to retreat into any allied occupied or empty sea zone. Retreating aircraft are subject to 1 round of defensive fire as listed in step 2, but no AA gunfire.
Step 7)
If the attacker does not retreat, then repeat steps 4-7 over until the attacker retreats or there is a winner.
Subs attacking surface vessels and attacking other subs will have a free attack against them. After that ALL of ships in the same sea zone can engage attacking subs - not to be confused with Submarine detection order.
Ships that shore bombard have a difficulty to attack other ships (if engaged) in first round, because they use lighter explosive charges and cannot do the same damage as if they are trying to engage enemy ships. So, they are under penalties for 1st round of battle as they can use only 25% of usual damage (rounded down) when they fire at their enemies. The second round of combat is as usual.

Phase 8: Land Movement:

The player now moves any land and aircraft units they wish to move. None of the aircraft can have participated in submarine detection or naval movement earlier in the turn if they are to be moved during the land movement phase. When moving units into a territory that contains enemy units, then air and/or land combats occure (see Phases 9 and 10). Moving a unit into an enemy controlled territory containing no units automatically puts that territory under the moving player's control or liberates it for an ally if it was originally owned by an ally nation. Aircraft can not capture territories.
Units that were picked up by transports during the naval movement phase may move into a territory adjacent to the sea zone they are in  at this point. If the units move from the transports into an enemy owned territory (even those territories that are not occupied by enemy units), then a Naval Invasion will take place.


Phase 9: Air Combat:

When aircraft move into a territory (or sea zone) containing enemy fighters, the enemy fighters have the option of intercepting or letting them go. When an interception is chosen, air combat occurs. Air combat is fought in the same manner as land combat with the exception the both the intercepting fighters and the attacking aircraft use their attack values as their combat rating. Remember, that bombers always have a combat value of 1 in air combat. Air combat unfolds in the following order:
Step 1)
Both sides roll a D10 for every aircradt they have in the combat. All fighters fight using their defense ratings. Bombers use their defense rating. Any unit that rolls equal to or less than its combat value will score 1 "hit" against the oppossing force.
Step 2)
Both player remove one aircraft for each "hit" scored against them by the oppossing player.
Step 3)
Each plane removes 1 fuel point. Those planes which must disengage from battle for lack of fuel points must leave the battle and be flown to a friendly controlled territory within range (fuel points remaining). Intercepting aircraft may expend all of their fuel points in this battle, since once they disengage they need only land in the territory that is under attack. The attacking player may now decide to retreat and end the battle. If he choses to remain and the intercepting player still has fighters remaining, then repeate steps 1-3.
Planes that are flying over an enemy territiry that has anti-air units in it are subject to one round of fire from those anti-air units. Planes running a industrial bombing mission do not need to destroy all enemy planes to complete there mission, they just need to survive the one round of enemy fire while they make there bombing run. Special Note: Attacking aircraft which are intercepted and engaged in battle do NOT recieve the trench penalty to their attack value for the purposes of the air combat only.

Phase 10: Land Combat:

Land combat occurs whenever the active player moves land/air units into an enemy controlled territory containing enemy units.  This includes Ports and Industrial Complexes if the defending player opts to have these units defend against the attacking force. Before combat occurs, be sure to any trench or beachlanding penalties to the attacking force. Remember that these penalties can not lower a unit's attack value below 1. Attacking aircraft can only participate in the land battle if those aircraft still have two or more fuel points remaining after any air battles that took place.
Artillery does not enter the territory being attacked, it stays in its current territory and fires in once there are no longer any attacking land units artillery may no longer fire in, artillery can not be taken as a loss during an attack. Artillery may not move and attack on the same turn, also when launching an assualt you may only have 3 artilley attack per land unit that is attacking.
Defending units may retreat at the end of any round of battle(1 round must be fought)

Land combat, like air combat, is resolved in a few quick steps. Firstly, if the defending player has any Anti Air units in the territory, the roll 1D10 for each AA Gun unit now. This is the free roll that AA units get and the attacking force does not get to roll in exchance. Hits scored by the AA units can only be applied to attacking aircraft. Once AA guns have rolled, proceed to the following three steps:
Step 1)
Both players roll 1D10 for each unit they have (attackers trying to roll equal to or less than each unit's attack value, defenders rolling equal to or less than their defense value), adding up the number of Hits they score against the oppossing force. Remember that defending fighters in the territory under attack now roll based on their defense value, even of those fighters also participated in an air battle which preceeded the land battle.
Step 2)
Both players remove 1 unit for each hit scored by the opponent. The defender may opt to lose Industrial Complexes and/or Ports like any other units (assuming they opted to include these units in the battle from the start), but can not lose the city; it merely stops fighting once all other defending units have been destroyed.
Step 3)
Attacking player subtracts 1 fuel point from all attacking air craft. All aircraft which must disengage for lack of fuel points leave and fly to whatever friendly territory they can reach. Aircraft *muct* disengage with enough fuel points to safely return to a friendly territory. If any attack would make this impossible, then the aircraft can not take part in that attack. If the attacking player wishes to continue the attack, repreate steps 1-3.

Phase 10.1: Naval Invasions:

A naval invasion occurs whenever land units move from a transport into an enemy owned territory. Trenches may not be placed along the boundary of a territory and a sea zone. However, the natural defenses of a coastline will apply penalties of their own to the invading force. Tanks may not participate in naval invasions at all. Infantry are -3 and artillery are -4 to their attack vaalue. Aircraft recieve no penalties if they enter into the territory via the sea borne coastal route. If the aircraft enter into the sea zone by way of an asjoinning territory, then they will be subject to the penalties of any trenches they cross. Beachlanding forces can NOT retreate  from a naval invasion.
In addition to applying penalties to the invaders, every nation has a coastal defense force. These are small coastal guard units stationed to help repel invading forces. Each and every naval invasion will face a 1 defense factor coastal defense unit in addition to any other defending units in that territory. The coastal defense unit will always be the first unit lost by the defending force. This coastal defense unit is NOT present for attacks which are made solely by land, even if it is a coastal territory being attacked.
Note for all combats - air, land or naval: each attacker and defender would have one fictive unit, with zero attack/defense, that would be taken as casualty, thus multinational attack and/or defense would be penalized if occured against single opponent. The purpose for this is to show how different armies in combined operations cannot fully cooperate and to favorize (just a little) single nations armies against multinational forces.
Note regarding all combats: if combat occur when two nations not allied to each other attack third nation then first two nations would attack each other first and they would act both as attackers. Only after this combat is resolved, winner would, with remaining troops, attack third nation. This is a rule intended to somewhat protect minor nations from beeing brutaly conquered by stronger nations.

Phase 11: Strategic Movements:

In place of standard movement, a unit may do a strategic move instead. Strategic movement represents the rapid transit of a unit via the roads and rail lines within the nation. A strategic move allows a unit to travel any number of friendly controlled (and incorporated) continuous land territories. Each and every territory on the map has a strategic movement capacity, with that capacity being equal to one unit for each resource point of the territory. The maximum number of units which may be strategically moved in and/or out of a territory in a single turn is limited by the maximum point value of the territory involved. Units which moved during Phase 8 can not strategically move in the same turn.
Example: Japan has just declared war on Russia and the Russian player now needs to strategically move more troops out east to shore up his defenses.  Russia has a couple of infantry in Warsaw which he can afford to pull off the front, which is just perfect since Warsaw only has a resource value of 2 and thus can only have a maximum of 2 units strategic in or out (combined) in one turn. The Russian player opts to move one of those infantry to Vladivostok and the other to Khabarovsk. Since both of those territories only have resource values of 1, this is the maximum number of troops which could be strategically moved into them.


Phase 12: Incorporation:

The player may now opt to pay to incorporate any territories they have conquered, but not yet paid to incorporate. Incorporating a territory will allow the nation to collect the resources from that territory. Territories which have been conquered, but not incorporated will not be counted towards the nation's saved resources for the turn (See Phase 14: Collect Resources), but they are still lost to the original owner of the territory. It cost 2 times the resource value of a territory to incorporate it. A nation that recaptures a territory that belonged to them at the start of play may incorporate the territory for zero cost.

Phase 13: Place New Units:

Ok, remember those units that you built back during Phase 3?. Its now time to place them on the board. Certain units can only be placed on the maps in certain locations and quantities. These are as follows:
1) New units may only be placed in territories which were incorporated by that nation prior to the start of the active turn. Units may only be placed in territories originally owned by the nation.
2) Infantry may only be placed in City territories originally owned by the nation.
3) Infantry may be placed in a territory which does not contain a city, but the player must pay an additional 5 resources for each infantry placed in this fashion.  The player can not place more infantry in this fashion into a single territory in one turn than the resource value of that territory. (also see #1).
Exception: Russia and China do not have to pay the additional 5 resources to excercise this option.
4) All non infantry land units and aircraft units may only be placed in a territory with an Industrial Complex owned by that nation. (also see #1)
5) All ships can only be placed into a sea zone adjacent to a land territory containing a Port owned by that nation. (also see #1). If this places ships into the same sea zone as enemy ships, then a naval battle happens with the newly built ships considered to be the attackers. This does not apply to newly built submarines.
6) Sonar units can only be placed onto ships in a sea zone adjacent to a territory with a port controlled by that nation.
7) Colonial Restrictions: There are two types of colonies. These are major colonies and minor colonies. City territories within a major colony may have a number of units built out of them equal to the resource value of the city territory. City territories within a minor colony may have a number of units built out of them equal to the resource value of the city divided by 2 (round up). If an Industrial Complex or Port is built within a colony, then any builds made out of one of these facilities must be subtracted from the build allowance of a city from that colony. (also see #1)
Major Colonies Minor Colonies
Canada South Africa
India German East Africa
Australia Algeria
  New Zealand

Phase 14: Collect Resources:

The player now gets to add up all of the resources from all of the incorporated territories they control.This money is kept at the supply depot that it connects to(if any) it may not cross the sea without help from a transport, though if it and where it would be going share the same sea zone then local merchants are considered to bring the resources over.
Note: All non player minor nations would collect 10% (rounded up) of full resource value per turn. When they join the main war or are involved in war with other neutrals, then they would get full income, and would be replaced with human player.
Note: All giftings between allies are allowed, but except for nations already mentioned above, only 50% (rounded up) would reach target country.

Phase 15: Special Rules Resolution:

During this last part of a the players turn there would be roll for those special events which can have a profound effect in the course of the war:

The Russian Revolution:

As the stress of the war grinds down Russia, the odds of the Russian Revolution beginning will increase. Starting in 1915, on Turn 7 the moderator will begin rolling to see if the Russian Revolution will begin. There is a 1 in 10 chance for the Revolution to begin in each of the 3 remaining turns of 1915, a 2 in 10 chance per turn for each of the six turns in 1916, a 3 in 10 chance for each of the six turns in 1917, and a 4 in 10 chance for each of the 5 turns in 1918. These numbers can be shifted up or down 1 point per dice roll based on the German and Russian special options presented earlier.
On the turn that the revolution begins, the moderator will roll a D10 for every Russian unit built that turn. On a 1-7 the unit will become a revolutionary. The moderator will then strategically place those units into one or more Russian territories into any territory or territories which do not have any Russian troops on them. If no such territories exist, then the moderator will pick a Russian territory which the revolutionaries will attack. If they succeed in the attack the territory become rebel owned. If they fail, the revolution is crushed then and there.
Once the revolution has begun either the moderator or a player specifically designated to play the Bolshevik forces will move those forces as if they were their own nation. Their goal will be to attack and defeat all Russian forces. Both Russian and Bolshevik players may draw resources from any Russian territories they control, and if one side captures a territory from the other they do not need to incorporate it; it remains incorporates towards Russia in general. Bolshevik forces can only attack Russian forces, or any troops on Russian soil, but can not attack outside lands that were Russian at the start of game play. Since they are the popular support from the people, the Bolshevik armies draw double the resources from any Russian lands than does anyone else, including the Russian player.
The Revolution acquires new troops in one of two ways. First it is allowed to spend saved resources like any other nation. The second is, any units the Russian player tries to build have a chance to defect to the Bolshevik side. 1D10 is rolled for each unit; on a 1-7 the Russian players gets to keep the unit, on an 8-10 its defects and is added to the Bolshevik player's newly built units. The Bolshevik player should be certain to leave instructions with the moderator should place any units gained in this fashion. The Bolshevik forces hold one significant advantage; in addition to building new infantry out of cities, the Bolsheviks may place new infantry units into any
Russian territories not currently occupied by any Russian troops. These can be territories already under Bolshevik control or any territory still under Russia's control that contains no Russian units. The Bolsheviks may place a number of infantry units into a territory with no city, equal to the resource value of that territory (the original resource value, not what the territory is worth to the Bolshevik player).
The Russian Revolution ends if at any time the Bolsheviks have no units remaining (This includes in mid update after all battles have been fought, but before the moderator places new units on the board) or the Bolshevik forces overrun all Russian cities and destroy all Russian soldiers. The winner of the war automatically has ownership off all Russian territories that belonged to both factions, including any Ports, Industrial Complexes, and Ships that survived the civil war. As the war progresses, any infantry built by either faction will count against Russia's total manpower limit. The Bolshevik forces all have the same cost and attributes as Russia's, excepting Bolshevik infantry which only cost 4 and have an attack value of 3 and defense value of 6. If the Bolshevik player succeeds in winning the civil war, that may then selectively target and attack any nations which had conquered any Russian territories since the start of the war and strive to re-unify all of Russia's original territories. If and only if all that has been achieved will the Bolshevik player then seek to continue any wars Russia had been in at the time of the Revolution's start; such as with any remaining Central Powers, and Japan if Japan had declared a major war on Russia.

Submarine Warfare:

Besides using submarines to selectively target naval task forces to attack, the Central Powers may attempt to hurt the British economy by restricting the amount of supply Britain can bring into the British Isles from its various colonies. If you'll note on the map a number of sea zones around Britain and on the approaches to Britain have numbers in them. These numbers represent, in a fashion, the resources flowing to Britain from all over the British Empire. At the end of any turn, Germany or any nation hostile to Britain has a submarine or surface vessel in these sea zones, then Britain's income will be reduced by the number value listed in that territory multiplied by the number of subs/ships in that territory, up to a maximum of 4 subs or ships per sea zone. The numbers for these sea zones is as follows:
North Atlantic: 4
Middle Atlantic: 3
Southern Atlantic: 3
North Sea: 2
English Channel: 2

For Example: If at the end of a turn, let's say Germany had 1 submarine in the North Sea and 2 submarines in the Middle Atlantic. Britain would lose 2 resources for the 1 sub being in the North Sea, and another 6 resources for the two subs in the Middle Atlantic.

British Starvation Rule:

Britain is an island that is dependant on importing certain food supplies in order to sufficiently feed its populace. If Germany can keep one or more submarines in every sea zone directly surrounding Britain for two consecutive turns, then on the second turn the British populace will begin suffering from starvation effects. On the first turn of starvation effect (the second consecutive turn with a sub cordon around the Isles) Britain manpower limit will be reduced by 3. For each and every turn thereafter in which the isles remain surrounded, the number of manpower reduced from the British Isles manpower limit will double. Hence on the third turn, the manpower would be reduced by 6, and on the fourth turn by 12, the fifth turn by 24, etc. If on any turn at least one sea zone around Britain does not contain an enemy sub or surface vessel, then the starvation effect ends and any future attempts at starving Britain must start the process all over again. It is also important to remember this rule only effects Britain's British Isles manpower limit and not the manpower limits of the various British colonies.

Variable US Trade:

The United States traded equipment and resources with both sides of the conflict while neutral. This will be represented as additional resources collected for the various sides. The amounts to each nation are: 10 to the British Isles, 8 to Germany, 5 to France. While the USA is neutral and not in negative numbers for US Entry, Russia also gets 5 trade resources from the USA. These resources do not come from the USA's active resource collection, but rather its uncollected military resources. These trade resources stop once the US has geared up to its maximum resource collection per turn. They also stop going to a nation of the US becomes at war with that nation. Through the use of naval blockades or sumarine warfare both sides may attempt to stop these resources from reaching the opposing nations.
Germany: The Allies may blockade its resources on any turn there are Allied warships or submarines in the Shagerrak sea zone. If Germany has managed to conquer and incorporate the French territory of Brest, then the Allies must also have ships or subs in the Middle Atlantic sea zone.
Britian: The Centrals can prevent the US trade from reaching the British Isles on any turn it has ships or subs in the North Atlantic and Middle Atlantic sea zone, or Germany may declare unrestricted submarine warfare.
France: The Centrals can prevent US trade from reaching France with ships or subs in the Middle Atlantic sea zone, or Germany may declare unrestricted submarine warfare.
Russia: The Centrals can prevent US trade from reaching Russia by having ships and or submarines in Norwegian Sea zone and Sae of Okhost. If Japan is at full war with Russia, the Japanese ships may count towards the blockade of either of these territories. If Germany declares unrestricted submarine warfare, then the Norwegian Sea route is automatically cut off. Also, Russia must still have ownership of at least one of Vladivostock or Kamchatka to be eligible to recieve the US trade via the pacific route.

Spanish Garrison:

At the start of play Spain is neutral. But because it still dislikes the French due to the Frances occupation and puppet control of Spain a century before, if France shows weakness along the French/Spanish border, then Spain might declare war on France and join the central powers. If at the end of any turn France has less than 2 infantry in each of the two territories of Toulouse and Bordeaux, there is a 50/50 chance that Spain will declare war on France. The 50/50 chance applies to the first time this happens. If Spain does not declare war then, if the garrison is below two on any future turns, for each time this happens there will be a 2 in 10 chance of Spain declaring war.

Spanish / American Relations:

Since the Spanish American war was only 16 years in the past, Spain definitely was not on good terms with the US. When the US enters the war on one side or another, there will be a 2 in 10 chance that Spain will enter the war on the opposing side.


World War I was certainly a war of attrition; more so than any other war in modern history. The terrible conditions of trench warfare coupled with the general stress of the war on the various people lead to several instances of mutinies and high levels of desertion. Any nation that expands its total manpower limit may become in danger of facing a mutiny. If a nation builds infantry units on a turn after its manpower limit has been expended, then there will be a 2 in 10 chance of a mutiny happening. When a mutiny happens the moderator will roll for the severity of the mutiny. It could be a small isolated segment of the army, or it could be a sizable chunk of the front line army. The moderator will roll 1D10. On a 1-4 it will be a small mutiny and isolated to a single territory. 5-7 will be a large mutiny, and 8-10 a disastrous mutiny.
Small Mutiny: One territory will be selected at random. 25% round up) of all units there, divided evenly among the various unit types will simply disband. If the territory has no units in it, then a new territory will be selected at random (its hard for it to be a mutiny if we have no mutineers.).
Large Mutiny: 2 territories will be selected at random. 50% (round up) of all units within these territories, divided evenly among the various unit types, will disband. Again, only territories with actual units in them will be selected.
Disastrous Mutiny: 2 territories will be selected at random. In the first of these territories 75%(round up) of the units there will disband. In the second territory, 100% of the units there will rebel against the nation. On the following turns the moderator will control these units as if they belonged to a minor nation who was brought into the war against the mutineers home nation. If the Mutinying forces successfully capture the nation's capital they will force the government to offer its foes a surrender, as per normal surrender rules.

Victory Conditions:

Naturally, should either side manage to conquer the opposing side, then they win outright. Odds are, however, that won't happen. The historical scenario lasts 26 turns, with each turn representing a two month period. This brings the game to the historical end date of the war. Historically at that time both Austro-Hunagry and the Ottomans had already surrendered and the German armies were in retreat on the western front at the time of the German surrender. Thus the Allied Powers win if they can either force a surrender or conquer Austro-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, plus have forced a surrender from or conquered Germany, or at the very least own and have incorporated at least one territory in homeland Germany. If the Allied Powers fail to accomplish this, then the Central Powers win.
If the Ottomans join the Allies they obviously need not have surrendered or been conquered for an Allied victory. However, if Italy joins the Centrals, the Allies must force a surrender from Italy or conquer it to achieve victory. Likewise for China. Should Japan seek war on the western allies, it does not need to have surrendered or been conquered for the Allies to win.
However,Japan acts as a wild card in this scenario. It is not truly allied with either faction, regardless of who it declares war on. The Japanese player is attempting to achieve its own victory conditions. If Japan is collecting 160 resources or more at the end of play, then Japan wins. If Japan wins, then both the Allies and Central Powers lose.


Game turns for The War to End All Wars play-by-email game represent a 2 month period. All turns are submitted in a single phase, with all nations taking their actions at the same time. A full historical game covers a 26 turn span, from the historical start date of the war to the historical end date. This being a beta test game, we are still working on devising actual "victory conditions". Obviously if you can outright conquer you foes, you will win. But historically neither side accomplished such a feat. What we will probably do is present each side with task accomplishment goals, with the idea being they try to match or out perform the accomplishments their nations accomplished in actual history.